Silicon Speech  Communication Advances Through Technology

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Most of the publications listed can be downloaded in PDF file format by clicking on [PDF].

Publications (1985-2015)

2015

Chait, M., Greenberg, S., Arai, T., Simon, J.Z. and Poeppel, D. (2015) Multi-time resolution analysis of speech: evidence from psychophysics. Frontiers in Neuroscience 9: 214-223. [PDF]

2012

Christiansen, T.U. and Greenberg, S. (2012) Perceptual confusions among consonans, Revisited – Cross-spectral Integration of phonetic-feature information and consonant recognition. IEEE Trans. Audio, Speech and Lang. Proc. 20: 147-161. [PDF]

2009

Ghitza, O. and Greenberg, S. (2009) On the possible role of brain rhythms in speech perception: Intelligibility of time-compressed speech with periodic and aperiodic insertions of silence. Phonetica, in press. [PDF]

2008

Greenberg, S. and Christiansen, T.U. (2008) Linguistic scene anaylsis and the importance of synergy. In: Auditory Signal Processing in Hearing Impaired Listeners, T. Dau, J.M. Buchholz, J.M. Harte and T.U. Christiansen (eds.), pp. 351-363. [PDF]

2007

Chait, M., Greenberg, S., Arai, T., Simon, J.Z. and Poeppel, D. (2007) Multi-time resolution analysis of speech. Under review at PLoS Biology.

Christiansen, T.U. and Greenberg, S. (2007) Distinguishing spectral and temporal properties of speech using an information-theoretic approach. Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Saarbrücken, Germany. [PDF]

Christiansen, T.U., Dau, T. and Greenberg, S. (2007) Spectro-temporal processing of speech – An information-theoretic framework. In Hearing – From Sensory Processing to Perception, B. Kollmeier, G. Klump, V. Hohmann, U. Langemann, M. Mauermann, S. Uppenkamp and J. Verhey (eds.). Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 515-523. [PDF]

Grant, K.W., Tufts, J.B and Greenberg, S. (2007) Integration efficiency for speech perception within and across sensory modalities by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired individuals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121: 1164-1176. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2007) What makes speech stick? Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Saarbrücken, Germany. [PDF]

 

2006

Ainsworth, W. A. and Greenberg, S. (2006) Auditory processing of speech. In: Listening to Speech: An Auditory Perspective (S. Greenberg and W. A. Ainsworth, eds.): Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 3-17. [PDF]

Arai, T., Warner, N. and Greenberg, S. (2006) Analysis of spontaneous Japanese in the OGI-TS multi-language telephone speech corpus. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, in press.

Greenberg, S. (2006) A multi-tier theoretical framework for understanding spoken language. In: Listening to Speech: An Auditory Perspective (S. Greenberg and W. A. Ainsworth, eds.): Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 411-433. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Ainsworth, W. A. (eds.) Listening to Speech: An Auditory Perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Greenberg, S., Arai, T. and Grant, K. (2006) The role of temporal dynamics in understanding spoken language, In: Dynamics of Speech Production and Perception, P. Divenyi, K. Vicsi and G. Meyer (eds.). Amsterdam: IOS Press, in press. [PDF]

 

2005

Chang, S., Wester, M. and Greenberg, S. (2005) An elitist approach to automatic articulatory-51acoustic feature classification for phonetic characterization of spoken language. Speech Communication 47: 290-311. [PDF]

Christiansen, T.U. and Greenberg, S. (2005) Frequency-selective filtering of the modulation spectrum and its impact on consonant identification. Twenty First Danavox Symposium, pp. 585-599. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2005) From here to utility – Melding phonetic insight with speech technology, to appear in Integrating Phonetic Knowledge with Speech Technology, W. Barry and W. Domelen (eds.). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 89-110. [PDF]

Hasegawa-Johnson, M., Baker, J., Borys, S., Chen, K., Coogan, E., Greenberg, S., Juneja, A., Kirchhoff, K. Livescu, K., Mohan, S., Muller, J., Sonmez, K. and Wang, T. (2005) Landmark-based speech recognition: Report of the 2004 Johns Hopkins Summer Workshop. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Audio, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP2005). [PDF]

Hasegawa-Johnson, M., Baker, J., Greenberg, S., Kirchhoff, K. Livescu, K., Muller, J., Sonmez, K. Borys, S., Chen, K., Juneja, A., Mohan, S., Coogan, E., and Wang, T. (2005) Landmark-based speech recognition: Report of the 2004 Johns Hopkins Summer Workshop. Center for Language and Speech Processing, Johns Hopkins University (93 pages). [PDF]

Magilen, G.. and Greenberg, S. (2005) Twenty First Danavox Symposium, in press. The missing link – The importance of diagnostic andfitting strategies for clinicalamelioration of hearing loss using digital hearing-aid technology. Twenty First Danavox Symposium. [PDF]

Wang, Y., Greenberg, S., Swaminathan, J., Kumaresan, R., and Poeppel, D. (2005) Comprehensive modulation representation for automatic speech recognition, Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Interspeech-2005), pp. 3025-3028. [PDF]

 

2004

Grant, K., Greenberg, S., Poeppel, D. and van Wassenhove, V. (2003) Effects of spectro-temporal asynchrony in auditory and auditory-visual speech processing. Seminars in Hearing, 25: 241-255.

Greenberg, S. (2004) Temporal properties of spoken language, Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 441-445. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Ainsworth, W.A. (2004) Speech processing in the auditory system: An Overview, in S. Greenberg, W.A. Ainsworth, A.N. Popper and R.R. Fay (eds.) Speech Processing in the Auditory System. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 1-62. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Ainsworth, W.A., Popper, A.N. and Fay, R.R. (eds.) (2004) Speech Processing in the Auditory System. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Greenberg, S. and Arai, T. (2004) What are the essential cues for understanding spoken language? IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. E87: 1059-1070. [PDF]

 

2003

Chang, S. and Greenberg, S. (2003) Application of fuzzy-integration-based multiple-information aggregation in automatic speech recognition, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Integration Processing. [PDF]

Chang, S. and Greenberg, S. (2003) Syllable-proximity evaluation in automatic speech recognition using fuzzy measures and a fuzzy integral. Proceedings of the IEEE Fuzzy Systems Conference, St. Louis. [PDF]

Grant, K.W. and Greenberg, S. (2003) Spectro-temporal interactions in auditory and auditory-visual speech processing. Proc. 8th European Conf. Speech Tech. Comm. (Eurospeech), pp. 2257-2260. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2003) Pronunciation variation is key to understanding spoken language. Proceedings of the International Phonetics Congress, pp. 219-222. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2003) Multi-tier linguistic annotation: Transcending the “beads-on-a-string” paradigm of spoken language. Onsei Kenkyu 7(3): 5-15. (The Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan) [PDF]

Greenberg. S. (2003) Strategies for automatic multi-tier annotation of spoken language corpora. Proc. 8th European Conf. Speech Tech. Comm. (Eurospeech), pp. 45-48. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2003) Time is of the essence – Dynamic approaches to spoken language. Proc. 8th European Conf. Speech Tech. Comm. (Eurospeech), pp. 2253-2256. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Arai, T. (2003) What are the essential cues for understanding spoken language. Proc. Speech Dynamics by Eye, Eye, Mouth and Machine Workshop, ATR, Kyoto, Japan.

Greenberg, S., Carvey, H, Hitchcock, L. and Chang, S. (2003) The phonetic patterning of spontaneous American English discourse. Proceedings of the ISCA and IEEE Workshop on Spontaneous Speech Processing and Recognition, Tokyo. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Carvey, H, Hitchcock, L. and Chang, S. (2003) Temporal properties of spontaneous speech – a syllable-centric perspective. J. Phonetics 31: 465-485. [PDF]

 

2002

Greenberg, S., Carvey, H.M. and Hitchcock, L. (2002) The relation of stress accent to pronunciation variation in spontaneous American English discourse, Proceedings of the ISCA Workshop on Prosody and Speech Processing, pp. 56-61. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Carvey, H.M., Hitchcock, L. and Chang, S. (2002) Beyond the phoneme – A juncture-accent model for spoken language. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Human Language Technology Research, pp. 36-43. [PDF]

 

2001

Chang, S., Greenberg, S. and Shastri, L. (2001) Robust phonetic feature extraction under a wide range of noise backgrounds and signal-to-noise r.atios. Proceedings of the Workshop on Consistent and Reliable Acoustic Cues for Sound Analysis, pp. 73-78. [PDF]

Chang, S., Greenberg, S. and Wester, M. (2001) An elitist approach to articulatory-acoustic feature classification. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-2001), pp. 1725-1228. [PDF]

Grant, K. and Greenberg, S. (2001) Speech intelligibility derived from asynchronous processing of auditory-visual information. Proceedings of the Workshop on Audio-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP-2001), pp. 132-137. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2001) From here to utility – Melding phonetic insight with speech technology. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-2001), pp. 2485-2488. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (2001) Whither speech technology? – A twenty-first-century perspective. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-2001), pp. 3-6. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Arai, T. (2001) The relation between speech intelligibility and the complex modulation spectrum. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-2001), pp. 473-476. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Chang, S. and Hitchcock, L. (2001) The relation between stress accent and vocalic identity in spontaneous American English discourse, Proceedings of the ISCA Workshop on Prosody in Speech Recognition and Understanding, pp. 51-56. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Slaney, M. (eds.) (2001) Computational Models of Auditory Function. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Hitchcock, L. and Greenberg, S. (2001) Vowel height is intimately associated with stress accent in spontaneous American English discourse. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-2001), pp. 79-82. [PDF]

Wester, M., Greenberg, S. and Chang, S. (2001) A Dutch treatment of an elitist approach to articulatory- acoustic feature extraction. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-2001), pp. 1729-1732. [PDF]

 

2000

Chang, S., Shastri, L. and Greenberg, S. (2000) Automatic phonetic transcription of spontaneous speech (American English). Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Chang, S. and Hollenback, J. (2000) An introduction to the diagnostic evaluation of the Switchboard-corpus automatic speech recognition systems. Proceedings of the NIST Speech Transcription Workshop, College Park, MD. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Chang, S. (2000) Linguistic dissection of switchboard-corpus automatic speech recognition systems. Proceedings of the ISCA Workshop on Automatic Speech Recognition: Challenges for the New Millennium, pp. 195-202. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Fosler-Lussier, E. (2000) The uninvited guest: Information's role in guiding the production of spontaneous speech, Proceedings of the Crest Workshop on Models of Speech Production: Motor Planning and Articulatory Modelling. [PDF]

Silipo, R. and Greenberg, S. (2000) Prosodic stress revisited: Reassessing the role of fundamental frequency. Proceedings of the NIST Speech Transcription Workshop. [PDF]

Silipo, R. and Greenberg, S. (2000) Automatic detection of prosodic stress in American English discourse. Technical Report TR-00-001, International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, CA. [PDF]

 

1999

Fosler-Lussier, E., Greenberg, S. and Morgan, N. (1999) Incorporating contextual phonetics into automatic speech recognition. Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1999) Speaking in shorthand - A syllable-centric perspective for understanding pronunciation variation, Speech Communication, 29: 159-176. [PDF]

Kingsbury, B., Morgan, N. and Greenberg, S. (1999) The modulation-filtered spectrogram: A noise-robust speech representation. Proceedings of the ESCA Workshop on Robust Methods for Speech Recognition in Adverse Conditions.

Shastri, L. Chang, S. and Greenberg, S. (1999) Syllable detection and segmentation using temporal flow neural networks. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, pp. 1721-1724. [PDF]

Silipo, R. and Greenberg, S. (1999) Automatic transcription of prosodic stress for spontaneous English discourse. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. [PDF]

Silipo, R., Greenberg, S. and Arai, T. (1999) Temporal constraints on speech intelligibility as deduced from exceedingly sparse spectral representations, Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech-99), pp. 2687-2690. [PDF]

 

1998

Arai, T. and Greenberg, S. (1998) Speech intelligibility in the presence of cross-channel spectral asynchrony, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP-98), pp. 933-936. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1998) Recognition in a new key - Towards a science of spoken language, Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP-98), pp. 1041-1045. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1998) Speaking in shorthand - A syllable-centric perspective for understanding pronunciation variation, Proceedings of the ESCA Workshop on Modeling Pronunciation Variation for Automatic Speech Recognition, pp. 47-56. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1998) In search of the unicorn: Where is the invariance in speech? Commentary on Sussman, H. Fruchter, D., Hilbert, J. and Sirosh, J. Linear correlates in the speech signal: the orderly output constraint. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 21: 267-268. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1998) A syllable-centric framework for the evolution of spoken language. Commentary on MacNeilage, P. The frame/content theory of evolution of speech production. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 21: 518. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Arai, T. (1998) Speech intelligibility is highly tolerant of cross-channel spectral asynchrony. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the International Congress on Acoustics, pp. 2677-2678. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Arai, T. and Silipo, R. (1998) Speech intelligibility derived from exceedingly sparse spectral information, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, pp. 74-77. [PDF]

Greenberg, S., Poeppel. D. and Roberts, T. (1998) A space-time theory of pitch and timbre based on cortical expansion of the cochlear traveling wave delay, in Psychophysical and Physiological Advances in Hearing, A. Palmer, Q. Summerfield, A. Rees, R. Meddis (eds.) London: Whurr Publishers, pp. 293-300. [PDF]

Kingsbury, B., Morgan, N. and Greenberg, S. (1998) Robust speech recognition using the modulation spectrogram, Speech Communication, 25: 117-132.

Wu, S.-L., Kingsbury, B., Morgan, N. and Greenberg, S. (1998) Incorporating information from syllable- length time scales into automatic speech recognition, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. 721-724. [PDF]

Wu, S.-L., Kingsbury, B., Morgan, N. and Greenberg, S. (1998) Performance improvements through combining phone- and syllable-length information in automatic speech recognition, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, pp. 854-857. [PDF]

 

1997

Arai, T. and Greenberg, S. (1997) The temporal properties of spoken Japanese are similar to those of English, Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech- 97), pp. 1011-1014. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1997) Auditory function, in Encyclopedia of Acoustics, M. Crocker (ed.). New York: John Wiley, pp. 1301-1323.

Greenberg, S. (1997) The significance of the cochlear traveling wave for theories of frequency analysis and pitch, in Diversity of Auditory Mechanics, E. R. Lewis and C. Steele (eds). Singapore: World Scientific Press. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1997) On the origins of speech intelligibility in the real world. Proceedings of the ESCA Workshop on Robust Speech Recognition for Unknown Communication Channels, pp. 23-32. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1997) The Switchboard Transcription Project, in Research Report #24, 1996 Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Summer Research Workshop Technical Report Series. Center for Language and Speech Processing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (56 pages). [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Kingsbury, B. (1997) The modulation spectrogram: In pursuit of an invariant representation of speech, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP-97), pp. 1647-1650. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. and Shire, M. (1997) Temporal factors in speech perception, in CSRE-based Teaching Modules for Courses in Speech and Hearing Sciences. London, Ontario: AVAAZ Innovations, pp. 91-106.

Kingsbury, B., Morgan, N. and Greenberg, S. (1997) Improving ASR performance for reverberant speech, Proceedings of the ESCA Workshop on Robust Speech Recognition for Unknown Communication Channels, pp. 87-90. [PDF]

Wu, S-L., Shire, M., Greenberg, S. and Morgan, N. (1997) Integrating syllable boundary information into speech recognition, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP-97), pp. 987-990. [PDF]

 

1996

Greenberg, S. (1996) Understanding speech understanding – Towards a unified theory of speech perception. Proceedings of the ESCA Tutorial and Advanced Research Workshop on the Auditory Basis of Speech Perception, Keele, England, pp. 1-8. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1996) Auditory processing of speech, in Principles of Experimental Phonetics, N. Lass (ed.). St. Louis: Mosby, pp. 362-407.

Greenberg, S., Hollenback, J. and Ellis, D. (1996) Insights into spoken language gleaned from phonetic transcription of the Switchboard corpus, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Spoken Language, pp. S24-S27. [PDF]

Rhode, W S, Greenberg, S. (1996) Coding of noise-embedded spectro-temporal information in the cochlear nucleus, in Cochlear Nucleus: Structure and Function in Relation to Modelling, W. A. Ainsworth, C. Hackney and E. F. Evans, (eds.), London: JAI Press, pp. 169-191.

 

1995

Greenberg, S. (1995) The ears have it: The auditory basis of speech perception, Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 34-41. [PDF]

Hermansky, H., Greenberg, S., and Pavel, M. (1995) A brief (100-200 ms) history of time in feature extraction from speech, Proceedings of the 15th Speech Research Symposium, pp. 168-174.

Morgan, N., Bourlard, H., Greenberg, S., and Hermansky, H. (1995) Stochastic perceptual models of speech, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP-95), pp. 397-400. [PDF]

 

1994

Greenberg, S. R. (1994) Speech processing: Auditory models, in The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, R. E. Asher (ed.). Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 4206-4227.

Greenberg, S. R. (1994) Review of Visual Representations of Speech Signals, edited by M. Cooke, S. Beet and M. Crawford. The Physiologist, 37: 308-309. [PDF]

Morgan, N., Bourlard, H., Greenberg, S. and Hermansky, H. (1994) Stochastic perceptual auditory-event- based models for speech recognition. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Spoken Language Processing, pp. 1943-1946. [PDF]

Rhode, W. S. and Greenberg, S. R. (1994) Lateral suppression and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 71: 493-519.

Rhode, W. S. and Greenberg, S. R. (1994) Encoding of amplitude modulation in the cochlear nucleus of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 71: 1797-1825.

 

1992

Rhode, W. S. and Greenberg, W. S. (1992) Physiology of the cochlear nuclei, in The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neurophysiology, R. R. Fay and A. N. Popper (eds.). New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 94-152.

 

1991

Jenison, R., Greenberg, S., Kluender, K. and Rhode, W. S. (1991) A composite model of the auditory periphery for the processing of speech based on the filter response functions of single auditory-nerve fibers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90: 773-786. [PDF]

 

1990

Greenberg, S., Rose, D., Brugge, J., Geisler, C. D. and Hind, J. E. (1990) Computer-generated color animations of acoustic transduction in the auditory periphery. Proceedings of the First IEEE Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing, pp. 464-469. [PDF]

 

1989

Kluender, K. K. and Greenberg, S. (1989) A specialization for speech perception? Science 244: 1530(L). [PDF]

 

1988

Greenberg, S. (1988) Acoustic transduction in the auditory periphery. Journal of Phonetics, 16: 3-18. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1988) The ear as a speech analyzer. Journal of Phonetics, 16: 139-150. [PDF]

Deng, L., Geisler, C. D. and Greenberg, S. (1988) A composite model of the auditory periphery for the processing of speech. Journal of Phonetics, 16: 93-108. [PDF]

 

1987

Greenberg, S., Marsh, J. T., Smith, J. C. and Brown, W. S. (1987) Temporal neural coding of pitch, I: Human frequency-following responses to complex tones. Hearing Research, 25: 91-114.

Greenberg, S. and W. S. Rhode (1987) Periodicity coding in cochlear nerve and ventral cochlear nucleus, in Auditory Processing of Complex Sounds, W. A. Yost and C. S. Watson (eds.). Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 225-236.

Deng, L., Geisler, C. D. and Greenberg, S. (1987) Responses of auditory-nerve fibers to multiple-tone complexes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82: 1989-2000. [PDF]

 

1986

Geisler, C.D. and Greenberg, S. (1986) A two-stage automatic gain control model predicts the temporal responses to two-tone signals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 80: 1359-1363. [PDF]

Greenberg, S. (1986) Possible role of low and medium spontaneous rate cochlear nerve fibers in the encoding of waveform periodicity, in Auditory Frequency Selectivity, B. Moore and R. Patterson (eds.). New York: Plenum, pp. 241-248.

Greenberg, S. (1986) Comment on E. F. Evans, Cochlear nerve fiber discharge patterns, cochlear frequency selectivity and the dominant region for pitch, in Auditory Frequency Selectivity, B. Moore and R. Patterson (eds.). New York: Plenum, pp. 261-262.

Greenberg, S., Geisler, C. D. and Deng, L. (1986) Frequency selectivity of single cochlear nerve fibers based on the temporal response patterns to two-tone signals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 79: 1010-1019. [PDF]

Kim, D. O., Rhode, W. S. and Greenberg, S. (1986) Responses of cochlear nucleus cells to speech signals: Neural encoding of pitch, intensity and other parameters, in Auditory Frequency Selectivity, B. Moore and R. Patterson (eds.). New York: Plenum, pp. 281-288.

 

1985

Geisler, C. D., Deng, L. and Greenberg, S. (1985) Thresholds for primary auditory fibers using statistically defined criteria. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77: 1102-1109. [PDF]